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Filament Is Making Blockchain IIoT as Easy as USB

Design News - Thu, 2018-07-12 05:00
Filament's Blocklet Chip comes in a USB form factor (shown) that allows existing industrial IoT devices to communicate and transact using blockchain. (Image source: Filament) 

Has 2018 been the year of enterprise production blockchain? Blockchain technology is moving into more and more commercial and enterprise applications—from supply chain, to energy production, and even potential automotive applications. The ever-expanding Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is going to require solutions for automation and security alongside its solutions for connectivity. And blockchain, with its promise of facilitating encrypted, automated, and verifiable transactions between systems, looks poised to be the answer. But while interest in blockchain technology is growing, with it comes a new challenge for engineers and companies looking to implement it. Very simply, how can they do so easily and efficiently?

Reno, Nevada-based Filament, a startup focused on providing enterprise blockchain solutions, believes it has the answer in the form of a hardware solution. Earlier this year, Filament announced a beta version of its Blocklet Chip, a chip designed to communicate and interact with multiple blockchain technologies natively. Essentially, it allows any IIoT device to use multiple blockchain technologies (or currencies) for communication. The Blocklet chip is designed to be implemented into any device in development.

Filament also recently announced a solution for existing devices in the form of a Blocklet USB device. According to the company, the Blocklet USB solution, which the company is now making available for pilot and proof of concept projects, can be used on any system with a USB port. It is designed to interact with multiple blockchains natively. The aim is to let companies facilitate blockchain transactions on their machines simply by plugging in a USB device and installing the requisite software.

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Filament’s CEO, Allison Clift-Jennings, has said that blockchain will have an impact akin to what e-commerce has done for the Internet, creating entire shifts in business models for whole industries. She and her team at Filament believe a hardware-based approach is the best one for an industrial landscape that will increasingly require “trust” and security among devices. “Most people really don't think of physical chips and blockchains going together,” Clift-Jennings told Design News. “But fundamentally, all that blockchain does, from a data structure standpoint, is provide trust or specify trust in a poorly trustable environment or nontaxable environment. So it's not that [blockchain] establishes trust when there isn't any; it's more that it specifies very explicitly how parties will interact with each other.”

She continued, “When you start talking about trust as this atomic unit rather than data, which is what most of the IoT is, trust fundamentally ends up having to protect a private cryptographic key. And when you boil it all down, in anything in the security world, you need a hardware location for the cryptographic keys to reside securely. Without that hardware—what we call a secure element or secure enclave—you simply cannot build higher order trust on top of that.”

Touch ID for Machines”

Clift-Jennings said that what Filament is attempting to accomplish with Blocklet is not at all unlike what Apple has done with Touch ID and Face ID in its products. “These are separate chips in the phones that do something very similar in that they are trying to drive for human authentication authorization. We're trying to drive to a blockchain native machine authorization authentication. So another way to look at it is like we're Touch ID for machines.”

While software-based blockchain solutions have existed for a while now, it's the addition of a physical chip that Clift-Jennings said allows Filament to offer an added layer of security to its clients. She likens this software-only approach to blockchain to putting your password on a Post-it note in your office.

She explained, “There are some aspects in the cryptographic primitives that most blockchains use that are very specific to the blockchain. So there are some requirements of customization. This is in the area of elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC).”

ECC, put very simply, is the complex math behind blockchain. In order for hardware to interact with blockchain natively, the mathematical curves created by ECC need to be supported by the hardware itself. “Now, you can do these curves in software and not hardware, but then you have to store your private keys somewhere where you can retrieve it. And then it's no longer private,” Clift-Jennings said. “Then you get the chicken and egg problem, where it's not really secure. So really, the proper pattern for this is to have a secure enclave, where you can pass a data payload into it and out comes a signed blockchain transaction with a private key that you can then pass onto a blockchain, and now be a truly secure participant of that blockchain ledger that you're working against..."

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“So what I would say to a customer asking, 'Why do I need a chip?' is that well, you can also write the password and your login credentials on a note and post it on the screen of your laptop, but you probably shouldn't. Can it work? Sure. Should you do it at scale? Probably not.”

Declaring Device Independence

Clift-Jennings joked that Filament has been involved with blockchain since before blockchain was a term, going on six years now—a blink of an eye in terms of most technologies. But in terms of blockchain, it represents the time since the technology really began to capture the public eye.

“The company originally started focusing in the very early days around connected devices in the hobbyist community. This was how we first got our sea legs six years ago,” she said. Filament's original focus was on crowdfunding a blockchain product. But in the process of doing that, Clift-Jennings said they started to get a lot of interest from industrial customers, who wanted to connect their legacy industrial infrastructure.

In 2015, Filament fully announced its intentions via a Medium post, “A Declaration of Device Independence,” which outlined the company's vision for a decentralized IIoT infrastructure: “We at Filament are proposing a fully decentralized Internet of Things ecosystem that operates independently of a central authority,” the post reads. “Imagine a future where devices have the autonomy to discover other devices, connect directly to them in a secure manner, and establish trust with them through contractual agreements. There is an adjacent possibility where a device not only interacts with others, but transacts value; where devices can pay each other directly for access to sensor data or to make something happen.”

The post goes on to discuss the possibilities and efficiency gains that come with pushing as much as possible toward the IoT edge, and removing the cloud from the equation. “When devices can communicate directly with each other — with or without the cloud — a notion of emergent behavior begins to arise. Much like insect colonies and plant roots, decentralized network structures with a few simple rules can provide for very complex systems to emerge. But these systems cannot emerge if artificial barriers exist that prevent the free flow of connectivity.”

“[That] Medium post described what we were starting to see emerge within the industrial IoT space,” Clift-Jennings said. “Everyone was talking about the data, but no one was talking about machines that could be economic in nature. And we thought that was pretty important because we saw that happen before, when e-commerce pretty much changed the way we use the Internet.”

Bringing Blockchain to Hardware

Filament's engineers were tasked with creating a chip that would deliver blockchain to IoT devices without hindering size and low power consumption requirements. (Image source: Filament) 

Engineering a blockchain chip isn't immune to the same challenges that come with designing any other semiconductor hardware. In creating Blocklet, Filament needed a solution that could be implemented into devices and live alongside core processors without drastically affecting overall demands for small size and low power consumption in IoT devices. There are always real requirements whenever you deal with real hardware product design life cycles,” Clift-Jennings said. “The way we did it is that we worked with our partners on the silicon and the work that we've been doing there to get basically the best in class power budget. So we're in the order of about 500 nanoamps in sleep and that's pretty much the best that ARM has available today.”

There's also a challenge unique to blockchain that Blocklet needed to address: supporting the growing plethora of implementations and “currencies.” Most will be familiar with the most popular cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum, but there are many more out there as well, such as Stellar Lumens and a growing number of implementations to coincide. Big names like IBM and Intel are backing Hyperledger, an open-source blockchain framework. Microsoft supports blockchain technology through its Azure cloud platform. And even Amazon's AWS cloud service has begun providing blockchain support.

In its current version, Blocklet supports 16 keys, meaning support for up to 16 blockchain implementations simultaneously. In the ever-evolving landscape, Clift-Jennings said that Filament sees supporting multiple currencies and implementations as being more important than establishing an implementation or standard of its own. “You need to have the ability to use multiple currencies as you see fit, so you can build more advanced blocking applications,” she said. “But we [at Filament] don't plan to bring up our own public chain or anything today. We do support heavily Hyperledger Sawtooth. We've actually contributed some code to speed it up and to make it more resilient because we have companies wanting us to bring up the production blockchain of imitations with our chips.”

With the Blocklet Chip and its USB form factor recently released, no outside companies have come forward yet to discuss pilots or use cases. But Filament remains optimistic that the coming months will see an expansion in blockchain's use on the production level, even with interoperability concerns.

Clift-Jennings continued, “The world will have thousands of different blockchains—tens of thousands, probably—with their own currency. And that's the way it should be. We don't have one web server class, we don't have one database engine or instance, we have all types.” She said there are protocols in place, such as the open Interledger Protocol (ILP), that perform a similar function for blockchain as exchange or translation protocols do for databases.

“This is really to try to figure out a common way in which blockchains can interact with each other and ledgers can interact with each other,” she said. “...This is, I believe very strongly, where the future is going and it's silly to think just one will win. That will never happen. That never happens with technology.”

Chris Wiltz is a senior editor at Design News covering emerging technologies, including VR/AR, AI, and robotics.

Researchers Achieve First 3D Printing of Human Corneas

Design News - Thu, 2018-07-12 04:00

Researchers in the United Kingdom have achieved the first 3D printing of human corneas that can potentially be used in replacement surgeries. In doing so, they have paved the way for an unlimited and easy-to-fabricate supply of new corneas to patients that need them, they said.

Key to the achievement by scientists at Newcastle University is a novel bio-ink—a gel comprised of alginate, a polysaccharide derived from seaweed, and collagen, the main structural protein in cornea. The ink met three key criteria necessary for the fabrication of corneas, Che Connon, professor of tissue engineering at the university, told Design News. In addition to keeping stem cells alive to create a living cornea, it produces a material stiff enough to hold its shape, yet soft enough to be squeezed out the nozzle of a 3D printer.

“The combination helped the gel do the things it needs to do,” Connon said. “What we’ve done is, for the first time, demonstrated that images taken from a person’s cornea can be rendered in a 3D model on a computer and then that can be recreated in a dish using a 3D-bioprinting system.”

University of Newcastle researchers Dr. Steve Swioklo (left) and Professor Che Connon watch as a cornea is bio-printed. The two developed a process and printer for fabricating the first 3D-printed corneas for transplant surgeries. (Image source: Newcastle University)

Cornea transplants can give people back their sight after they’ve lost it due to corneal blindness, which can happen due to burns to the corneas, serious infections, or other afflictions.

While many countries in the first world have large cornea banks for transplant patients, many in under-developed regions of the world do not. Unfortunately, it’s usually in these places where people need cornea replacements the most, Connon said.

“Many people don’t have access to cornea transplantation in places where there are a lot more instances of burns and infections that can cause corneal blindness—so a higher incidence, but a lower availability of corneas,” he explained.

Even in the more developed world, eye banks are only just keeping up with demand due to a couple of factors, Connon said. Those are that people are living longer, and there has been a rise in refractive surgery—or surgery to correct people’s vision—in which case the corneas can’t be re-used later.

The Newcastle team has been studying corneas for 20 years. So it was well-informed to develop a viable 3D-printing process and the material needed to produce corneas that will work well for implants, Connon said.

One key aspect they had to consider to bio-print a viable artificial cornea is the shape of the cornea, he explained. “We previously showed last year that the shape of a tissue instructs the cells within it,” Connon said. “Any artificial cornea should not be flat, it should be curved, so the cells will behave in a more cornea-like way and create a more functional cornea.”

Connon worked chiefly with Dr. Steve Swioklo, a research associate in the university’s Institute of Genetic Medicine, on the research. He also collaborated with a company spun off from the university called Atelerix. That company provides a sealed tube for storing living cells for use in medical applications, he said, which could enable easy fabrication and replacement of corneas in patients.

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“A doctor in surgery could have a 3D printer with the program and then reach up and take a printing gel from the shelf and plug right into the printer, separating the wet and messy production of cells from the production of printing,” Connon explained. “It’s a really powerful application moving forward.”

The research is still years away from being integrated into patient surgery and care. Yet it’s still an example of how 3D printing is changing the landscape for healthcare and demonstrates a promising development for patients who lose their sight to corneal afflictions in the future, Connon said.

“We’re seeing 3D printing in many avenues of our life,” he said. “In healthcare, it’s not just how quickly you can have something made, but also how you can make something bespoke. A cornea that has the right shape and size for a particular patient can now be done with a 3D-printing technique.”

The research team published a paper on its work in the Elsevier journal Experimental Eye Research.

Elizabeth Montalbano is a freelance writer who has written about technology and culture for 20 years. She has lived and worked as a professional journalist in Phoenix, San Francisco, and New York City. In her free time, she enjoys surfing, traveling, music, yoga, and cooking. She currently resides in a village on the southwest coast of Portugal.

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Design Job: Action! Fox Broadcasting Company is Seeking an Art Director in LA

Core 77 - Wed, 2018-07-11 19:01

Fox Broadcasting Company (FOX), a unit of 21st Century Fox, is home to some of the highest-rated and most acclaimed series on television. FOX has 208 FOX Affiliates, including 17 stations owned and operated by the Company, which which reach approximately 99.9% of all U.S. television households. FOX airs 15 hours of primetime programming a week, as well as major sports and Sunday morning news. Through the FOX NOW app, FOX viewers can watch full episodes of their favorite FOX shows on a variety of digital platforms, while enjoying enhanced interactive and social capabilities around those shows.

View the full design job here

The Middlecott Sketchbattle Experiment™ Returns Tomorrow Night in San Francisco

Core 77 - Wed, 2018-07-11 19:01

The Middlecott Sketchbattle Experiment is back, and this time the Fight Club of Design is taking over San Francisco's Automated Vehicles Symposium to bring you a night of hardcore live automotive sketching.

Currently held four times a year during the Detroit Auto Show, the Los Angeles Auto Show the Las Vegas SEMA show and now in San Francisco, the Middlecott Sketchbattle Experiment is an automotive design sketching competition and creative community party, where today's and tomorrow's motor industry elite battle for recognition as the Middlecott Sketchbattle Champion. Both design professionals and students are welcome, and this time around, Core77 is proud to be a sponsor!

Event Details:

The San Francisco Sketchbattle will consist of two rounds of design sketching lasting around 30-45 minutes each. Following each round, a panel of top tier professional designers will judge the sketches to determine who goes through to the next round. This year, the judging panel even includes Tim Kentley-Klay, CEO and Co-Founder of ZOOX

An intense scene from the 2017 Sketchbattle at SEMA

The sketching competition will take place during an evening cocktail reception with the Automated Vehicles Symposium on Tuesday, July 10th from 5:00-8:00PM. 0ver 2,000 executives and design professionals will be attending to watch the live sketching. The contestants are a mix of 50% professionals and 50% students.

0ver 2,000 executives and design professionals will be attending to watch the live sketching, so this is a great opportunity to mingle with design employers and business contacts. Many of the contestants from previous Sketchbattle events have gained internships or jobs as a result of exposure from the Sketchbattles.

The overall winner will receive $1000 cash prize, a Champion Title Belt, a Brazen Sports watch and media exposure.

The Middlecott Sketch Battle Experiment is organized by designer Brook Banham of Middlecott Design and and Frank Schwartz, founder of Advanced Automotive Consulting Services.

Read Michael DiTullo's report from the 2017 Sketchbattle at SEMA here!

Product Designer Shunji Yamanaka's Electric Scooter with Follow Functionality

Core 77 - Wed, 2018-07-11 19:01

Not very long ago, human beings' main form of transportation was an eco-friendly one: The horse. It ran on grass, and its "emissions" fertilized future patches of grass, creating a circular fuel system.

Japanese product designer Shunji Yamanaka points out another benefit of horse-based transportation: Companionship. "In the past, [horses were] a partner of people and also a vehicle." In an admittedly strange bid to recreate this relationship, Yamanaka has developed an electric scooter, the CanguRo, that he envisions as both transportation and a partner. "As a partner robot, it never leaves the side of its master," he writes. "It transforms into a vehicle that augments its master's physical functions—motional and sensory—and travels with the master as one."

It's an interesting concept, but I think it would be more useful if it could carry lots of things, like a pack mule. I'd like to see a design outfitted with storage/hauling platforms or compartments.

The CanguRo was developed in collaboration between Yamanaka and fuRo, Japan's Future Robot Technology Research Center.


Design Job: Hybrid Is Looking for an Experienced Graphic Designer to Initiate, Develop and Manage Creative Design Projects for Big-Name Clients. 

Core 77 - Wed, 2018-07-11 19:01

Hybrid is a graphic design studio based in San Francisco. Our focus is on creating wonderfully engaging design–which includes: branding, identities, campaign development and strategy, publication design and production, retail and environmental, advertising, digital/websites, and packaging for clients like Nike, Apple, MOMA, Google, TED, Lego, Levis, Lucasfilm, Steelcase, United Nations

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Best Shop Tour Ever (Conducted by Lego Train)

Core 77 - Wed, 2018-07-11 19:01

Have you ever not been able to find some piece of material or tool in your shop, then given up and re-purchased it? You could fix this problem by following YouTuber and Lego enthusiast BANANENBUURMAN's example. He's combined a Lego train with tracks from TrixBrix and a 360 camera, meaning he can easily survey the upstairs of his grandfather's shop without having to crawl around up there:


After USPS Uses Wrong Statue of Liberty Image on Stamp, Sculptor Awarded $3.5 Million for Copyright Infringement

Core 77 - Wed, 2018-07-11 19:01

If you've ever seen the Statue of Liberty in New York versus the replica in Las Vegas, there is one glaring difference that any artist, designer or fabricator is bound to notice:

The replica, at right, has a conspicuous and continuous seam running across the breast. Lady Liberty's torso below that seam is bisected by a vertical seam.

A more subtle difference can be seen at the base of the centermost protrusion in Lady Liberty's corona radiata (original at left, replica at right):

That little rectangle shows up on the U.S. Postal Service's 2010 stamp featuring the Statue of Liberty. Which means, whoops, whoever selected that image for the stamp actually chose an image of the replica.

As PetaPixel explains:

The Post Office had used Getty Images to find a suitable photo of the Statue of Liberty, and they settled on the photo by photographer Raimund Linke, not seeing that the keywords on the page clearly stated that the photo shows the replica in Vegas.

No one noticed until 2011. Eventually word reached Robert Davidson, the Las-Vegas-based sculptor who created the replica. This being America, by 2013 he had lawyered up and sued the USPS for copyright infringement. Then, according to AP News:

Postal Service attorneys argued Davidson's design was too similar for him to claim copyright.Federal Judge Eric Bruggink sided with Davidson last week and agreed his work was an original design with a more modern, feminine and contemporary face. He ordered the Postal Service to pay $3.5 million to the artist — a slice of the $70 million the service made in profit from the stamp.

News of the lawsuit's success broke, fittingly, last week on July 4th.

How to Optimize Your Solar Panel Array

Design News - Wed, 2018-07-11 16:32

Solar panels are becoming more affordable, but unfortunately the land and roof space needed for them is not. In order to maximize efficiency and keep costs low, it's important to understand how to optimize solar panel placement in an array. In experiments, the concept presented here can more than triple output for a given area. Data shows an increase in output of 670%. That means if you have 100 square feet of space for solar panels, you can go from 1kW to 6.7kW of output power. And it only scales up from there.

To understand this, we have to begin by treating light as a wave, and not as particles. If light were particles and we wanted to optimize for efficiency, we would try to maximize area on the plane perpendicular to the source in order to collect as many of these particles as we can. But light is a wave, a vibration with an energetic potential difference between points of positive and negative amplitude. So, rather than collecting photons in a bucket, we're going to harvest the energy from a wave of light in a way similar to other known waves.

As a sound engineer for many years, I have witnessed for myself how efficiently sound waves can be captured. Sound waves, for a given area, are best absorbed not by a flat wall, but by an array of ridges known as studio foam. In a recording studio environment, it is advantageous to reflectively direct sound waves into wedge-like cavities to absorb that energy instead of allowing the sound to bounce off the wall while maintaining a large portion of its energy. In a solar array, as we are about to find, it is similarly advantageous to do the same.

Knowing that light is a wave, we can take advantage of that same property. And given that light is of a higher frequency than sound (0.003-7.5 x 10^14Hz at 299,000,000 m/s compared to 20Hz-20kHz at 343.2 m/s), we will have more reflections for a given distance and therefore more opportunities to capture that energy. Light is a wave that reflects. Each time it reflects, some energy is lost and some energy remains. Based on this, we can decide to orient the solar configuration so that it reflects again and again, allowing for energy to be captured repeatedly from a single ray of light.

We will keep in mind that, when capturing the energy of a wave, energy will decrease at every successive interval because amplitude is lost at each reflection point. This will result in exponentially decreasing energy with respect to the number of reflections. But these reflections, if graphed based on our theoretical geometry, show a fractal pattern of data that is additive at every point of reflection. At the scale of this experiment, we will be capturing the energy from up to 100,000 reflections or more, as opposed to one single reflection captured with a typical flat solar array orientation.

Instead of letting light hit our solar panels and bounce off as wasted energy, we will set up a configuration that reflects each light wave multiple times, extracting more and more energy each time. This reflection will cause the inside of the solar panel configuration to appear darker than a standard flat configuration, which we can observe by measuring reflected light traveling in the inverse direction as the source. Most importantly, though, we will observe that by taking advantage of the known wave properties of light, we can extract significantly more energy for a given area.

Parts List:

Qty.

Part

8

Solar Cells, uniform (ex. 2×4″, 6v,1w)

2 ft.

2-22 gauge Insulated Wire

2

Digital Voltmeters, low draw (may require resistors/dummy load)

2

8×10″ Plexiglass sheets

4

5/16″ Bolts

8 – 12

5/16″ Nuts

4

5/16″ Washers, End Caps

You can source individual parts from Digi-Key.

Drew Paul has made a kit of all the components available as well. 

Click here to download a diagram that includes a data sheet to be filled out during testing.

Tools:
Soldering Iron, Solder
Drill, Bits, and Cut Disk
Hot Glue Gun, Glue

Testing Equipment:
Multimeter
Luxmeter (light meter)

 

1.) Wiring

What we will be doing is geometrically orienting the solar cells to capture more solar energy by minimizing losses due to reflection and to fit more photovoltaic material in a given space.

The first step is to wire our cells. Normally, we can fit two traditionally oriented, 2×4″ cells in an area of 4×4″. With the new orientation design presented here, we can fit six 2×4″ cells in a space of only 1.5×4″.

Our first pair will be our control configuration. We’ll wire them up in series and signify the leads by attaching appropriately colored wire.

The next array will be the experimental setup: six cells in series that will keep current constant for this experiment, allowing us to measure variable voltage. Allowing an extra few millimeters in the length of the wire used for the series connections and pre-bending them will avoid binding in the next step. You may also add your output leads to the opposing positive and negative terminals and your wiring will be complete.

Take this opportunity to test for functionality and continuity.

2.) Orientating the Array

First, we will orient our control set side by side just like every solar array you’ve ever seen.

Next, we will create the experimental array. This can be built according to the specifications here or adjusted at your discretion. With our set of six wired cells, we will attach them one at a time with glue. We will pair our cells in “V” shapes with a measured angle of 22.5 degrees, which results in a gap at the open end of 0.5 inches for each pair. This can easily be recalculated for cells of a different dimension. Each “V” should have the solar cells facing inward.

We will now attach the three pairs with glue, which should result in an overall width of only about 1.5 inches, as shown.

These two arrays can then be tested again, adjusted if necessary, and put to the side.

It is important to have a level, stable, and consistent platform to keep all variables constant for experimental purposes. We will be measuring distances from artificial light sources to a high degree of accuracy and placing the platform in natural light, which must remain exactingly consistent for accurate results, which can be dependably scaled up.

3.) Building the Platform

To build this platform, attach the components to a sheet of plexiglass or other suitable material. First, plan, measure, and trace the component placement on the sheet based on the diagram shown. Then, drill holes for wiring, and in the corners for mounting, and cut holes for your meters. After the wiring and meter holes have been made in the first sheet, you will want to drill corner holes in both sheets simultaneously for parallelism.

You may then mount your two solar array configurations side by side and upright, on the same tangent with reference to a light source above.

Next, mount your voltmeters and wire them accordingly. The meters serve for demonstration purposes, but I also incorporated additional leads to attach a multimeter for more accurate experimental readings and better display in bright sunlight.

Once complete, add a nut to your bolts and drop on the sheet with holes in the corners and ensure it is level. This sheet will serve as a bottom cover. Add another nut to secure the bottom sheet and for spacing. Then add your top sheet with components mounted and secure it in place.

4.) Testing

The experimental platform is now ready to test.

This array can be tested in a lab in the presence of a consistent-lumen light source, such as a standard lamp. With a single artificial light source in close proximity, test each array independently in order to keep input constant. First, place a light meter on the flat control array, apply constant light, and note the lux reading. Then, carefully remove the meter and note the voltage. With low intensity artificial light, your meters may be insufficient and a more accurate powered multimeter may be required to obtain a reading.

Repeat the process with the experimental array. It is very important to ensure both tests are performed at exactly the same light level. Because the experimental array sits higher, you will need to adjust your light source in order to test at the same lux reading as your control. Once you have reached a lux reading precisely equal to your control test, carefully remove the meter and note the voltage.

You will find that even your experimental array produces significantly more power even though it requires only a fraction of the area!

Repeat the process outside in natural high intensity sunlight and the results will be compounded even more!

To calculate the efficiency increase with respect to area, adjust voltage for input variance if necessary, calculate voltage per square inch, and simplify to get a qualitative result that we’ll call our efficacy coefficient.

My tests show an improvement of 670%, over six times the energy from the same space!

Try the experiment for yourself, record your data, and then scale it up to power your home, electric car, or anything else. Try combining this configuration with a solar tracker, and you will be able to harness more solar energy from a square meter than you ever thought possible.

[All images courtesy Drew Paul / Drew Paul Designs]