The Polaroid "Land Camera", the first to develop its own prints in minutes, went on sale at Jordan Marsh in Boston for $89.95 and was an instant sensation. It was designed by Walter Dorwin Teague Associates, and produced by the Polaroid Land Company. The camera's inventor was Edwin H. Land (1909-1991), who got the idea while on vacation at the Grand Canyon in 1943. His daughter asked to see the picture he had just taken. Land perfected his system from a 1928 invention by Agfa in Germany which had never been commercialized. In 1929, Land had developed a process of polarizing plastic sheets to prevent glare, and in 1934, named the product Polaroid. He tried with no success to interest automakers in using his product in windshields, but finally sold the rights to the Americal Optical Company for sunglasses. By 1945, sales had reached $17 million, and Land was very well rewarded. Land's Polaroid Company in 1939 marketed an executive desk lamp, designed by Frank Del Guidice (1917-1993) of Teague's office. The design was very successful, and convinced Land of the value of not only industrial design, but of Teague's office in particular. Teague also designed the improved Polaroid Electric Eye 900 camera for Land in 1960. It sold for $159.95. In 1963, the first "instant" color film, developed by Elkan R. Blount and Howard G. Rogers of Polaroid, came onto the market, along with a new Automatic 100 to use it, designed by Henry Dreyfuss Associates. It was the first to allow development of one picture while shooting the next. In 1965, HDA designed Model 20, the Swinger, for teenagers. This was followed in 1973 by the Polaroid SX-70 camera, the first with SLR, designed by James M. Conner of Henry Dreyfuss Associates (HDA) and Edwin Land. It was to be the last product worked on By Henry Dreyfuss (1904-1972) before his untimely death. HDA also designed the Polaroid Pronto camera, introduced in 1976. The most recent Polaroid, the Vision Date +, was designed by John H.
In 1963, Kodak introduced its Instamatic 100 camera designed by Frank A. Zagara of Kodak staff. It could be loaded with film cartridges ready to shoot. Price was $15.95. The Instamatic won a Certificate of Design Merit from the Industrial Designers Institute, and was produced until 1966. Kodak cameras have been around since 1888, when George Eastman (1854-1932) invented his original camera and founded the Eastman Dry Plate Company. When the camera's film pack was used, it was sent back to the factory for development of the photos. In 1889, celluloid was. modified by a Kodak chemist, Henry Reichenback, into photographic film which could be made into rolls. Eastman's 1895 "Pocket Kodak" camera and 1897 "Folding Pocket Kodak" set the typeform for all roll film cameras, and his $1.00 "Brownie" box camera of 1900 popularized home cameras. The "Brownie" got its name from Eastman''s first designer, Frank Brownell, who made all wooden camera parts for Eastman until 1902. Eastman's best known designer was Walter Dorwin Teague--Eastman was his first client in 1928. Teague designed the 1934 "Baby Brownie", which also sold at $1.00. Eastman Kodak introduced 35mm film in 1935, Kodachrome film in 1936, and Kodacolor film (for prints) in 1944. In 1945, Kodak established its own design department, headed by Theodore Clement working as assistant to Teague, who continued as a consultant. Clement soon added Arthur Crapsey, Jr., and later, Fred Knowles and Ken Van Dyke, as employees. In 1964, Kodak introduced a low-profile Model 800 Carousel slide projector, designed by David E. Hansen of Kodak staff headed by Arthur Crapsey, Jr. An earlier Model 550, somewhat bulkier and designed by Richard Olson of Kodak's staff, appeared in 1961. The Model 800 was produced through 1972 and established the typeform for projectors for the rest of the century. A Pocket Instamatic series of cameras, designed by staff, were introduced in 1972 by Eastman Kodak Company.
Kodak’s carousel projector was a dramatic innovation that established a new typeform for projectors. Previous projectors used linear slide trays below the lens that lifted slides into position. Kodak engineers D.M. Harvey and W.P. Ewald reversed the process to allow slides to fall by gravity into position from a tray above the lens. Kodak industrial designers Art Crapsey and David Hansen meanwhile worked on sketches and working drawings for this concept. Ewald built a top-loading tray prototype to test the concept in 1956. In 1957, Hansen hit on the concept of a round tray in a sketch, and a patent was granted to him. Kodak industrial designer Dick Olsen carried on the development, and in 1959, final drawings were completed for a prototype and appearance model. The final product, the Model 550, was introduced in 1961, and swept the market. Still, some of its features were extraneous to operation, adding costs. So it was redesigned to make it easier to manufacture and use by Crapsey and Hansen, and the resulting model 800 (illustrated above) was introduced in 1964. This model set the classic typeform. After 1972, later models of the carousel were introduced by Kodak, but with little change in its compact appearance and function. Designers of this era had to prepare portfolios of 35mm slides, and they were used in thousands of client presentations. But in 2004, when digital photography finally killed the 35mm slide market, the last Kodak carousel projector was produced. Many older designers are now converting their lifetime of slides into digital storage through CDs or DVDs